C – Overview
C is a High-level and general purpose programming Language developed by Dennis Ritchie. C Language is an ANSI/ISO standard and powerful programming language for developing real-time applications. It was developed for implementing UNIX operating system. C is the most widely used programming language compared to all other programming languages even today. All other programming languages like c#, c++….etc. were derived directly or indirectly from C programming language concepts only.
Our tutorial explains all basic concepts in C programming languages like Introduction to C, Installation process, keywords, constants, variables, operators, expressions, control structures, arrays, pointers, strings, structures, unions, preprocessors, Header files… etc.
This C programming tutorial is designed for the online learners, students, teachers and also for the corporate level developers who are interested in learning through online and brushing up their programming skills. Our tutorials help you to learn c programming language from basic concepts to advanced concepts till u became the master in C.
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C Programming Introduction
‘C’ is a High-level and general purpose programming Language. ‘C’ is a structure oriented programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie.’C’ seems a strange name for a programming language. ‘c’ was an offspring of the “BASIC COMBINED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE”(BCPL) called B, developed in the 1960’s at Bell Laboratories in 1960. This tutorial helps you to know Facts about C Programming Language, Advantages of C Programming Language, Applications of C, Disadvantages of C.
There are such a variety of Compilers for running and executing a C program. You can find a List of Compilers here.But there are only a few compilers works efficiently and quickly. Few of them are Turbo C compiler, Dev C compiler, C free, Net Beans, Code Blocks, Eclipse, Digital Mars, Sky IDE, Code Lite, MinGW, Ultimate++, Microsoft Visual Studio Express….., etc. Mainly Turbo C compiler and Dev-C compiler are used to run and execute a C program in WINDOWS Operating system.
This tutorial helps you to learn How to install C compilers on your PC or Laptops
Structure of a C program
Before going to study the concepts of C Program one must have the basic knowledge of Structure of C program. For creating a C Program, we must first create functions and then put them together. Basically, Structure of a C program divides into different sections or parts. A C program may contain one or more sections. They are listed and illustrated in the below link.
Executing a C program
Executing a C program involves a series of steps like Creating the program, Compiling the program, Linking the program with functions that are needed from the C library, Executing the program. Executing a C program may from one operating system to another. These are clearly and briefly illustrated in the Following link.
In a C source file, each word, and punctuations mark are called as Tokens. As we know, some the smallest individual units in a program are known as Tokens. Tokens are also called as Lexical Units. These are the building blocks in C language which are used to write a program. You will get the clear idea after reading this tutorial in the following link.
Every C word is classified as either a Keyword or an Identifier. All Keywords in C have fixed to mean, and these meanings can’t be changed anywhere in the C program. Keywords play a vital role in Programming, and these are the essential building blocks to write a C program. There are 32 keywords in C language. Keywords are pre-defined words in the compiler. These keywords are listed and explained in the following link.
Identifiers are used as the general terminology for the names of variables, functions, arrays…, etc. They are the fundamental requirement for any programming language. These Identifiers are user-defined names consisting of an arbitrary sequence of alphabets, digits, and underscore. This tutorial deals with how to use identifiers and rules to construct. After this tutorial, you get full clarity on naming the identifiers.
The variable is a storage element used to store the data and is created in the memory. In other words, variables are names given to locations in memory for user identification. After reading this tutorial you can able to use variables in a C program and how to create a C program. For more information, click the link below.
Scope refer to the visibility and accessibility of a program. The region where a defined variable in a program can have its existence ad beyond that variable can not be accessed is called Scope of a variable. The scope and extent of a variable are briefly illustrated in the respective link below.
C language consists of the rich set of built-in datatypes. A program uses data to perform the task or operation. We must specify the type of data before it’s us. In this tutorial, you will learn about data types. The list of data types and their functionalities are briefly illustrated in this tutorial. For reading this tutorial, click the more link.
Variables in C language can have not only data type but also Storage Class which provides an information about their location and visibility. These Storage classes decide the portion of the program within which the variables are recognized. Every Identifier optionally has a storage class that provides information about its visibility, lifetime, and location. For the detailed explanation, click the link below.
Input & Output Operations
This tutorial mainly deals with the input and output operations like scanf(), printf()…etc. These input and output operations must be done explicitly by the programmer. These input and output statements are briefly illustrated with examples in the following link.
C language supports the rich set of Operators. An operator is a symbol that tells the device to perform certain mathematical or logical manipulations. Operators are used in programs to manipulate data and variables. The list of operators is briefly illustrated in the following link.
An arithmetic expression is a proper combination of variables, constants, and operators arranged as per the syntax of the respective language. C can handle any complex mathematical expressions. Every expression must consist of at least one operand and one operator. For detailed view, click the following link.
Decision Control Statements
In decision control statements (if else and nested if), a group of statements is executed when the condition is true. If the condition is false then else part statements are executed. They are briefly explained in the following link.
Loop control statements in C language are used to perform looping operations until the given condition is true. Control comes out of the loop when the condition becomes false. These are illustrated with examples in the following link.
Case control Statements
The statements which are used to execute some specific block of statements in a series of statements depending on some condition/case are called case-control statements. These are 4 types in C programming. They are 1) goto 2) continue 3) break 4) switch.
The collection of similar data elements (Homogenous elements) stored in adjacent memory locations sharing a common name is known as an Array. The elements are always stored in contiguous memory locations. The types of an array and their functionalities are illustrated in this tutorial.
Pointers are Key concepts of C and (C++) programming that differentiate it from other popular programming languages like Java and Python. A pointer is a variable which holds the address of memory location where the data is stored. After reading this tutorial in the link below, you will get a clear idea of pointers concept.
The combination of characters is called a String. In C, Strings are nothing but an array of characters ended with a null character (‘\0’). This null character indicates the end of the string in C. In C programming, strings are always enclosed in double quotes. Whereas, a character is enclosed by single quotes in C.
The structure can be defined as a group of different data items that share a common name. Structures are used to represent a record. After reading this tutorial, you will be able to create structures in a program.
A Union is a special user-defined data type in C that allows storing different data items in the same memory location. In this tutorial, you’ll learn about unions in C programming language. More specifically, how to create unions, access its members and learn the differences between unions and structures.
The variables defined with predefined bit-length are called Bit fields. A bit field is a set of adjacent bits whose size can be from 1 to 16 bits in length. A word can, therefore, be divided into a number of bit fields. Declaration and usage of bitfields are briefly illustrated in this tutorial.
C provides a great feature to create a synonym for a data type. This can be done by using a keyword typedef. The user defined data type identifier can be used later to declare variables. In this tutorial, you will learn how to deal with typedef in a program.
Any program contains variables, arrays, pointers, and many other storage structures. To store values in any storage element first memory space must be provided. This is known as Memory allocation. For storing data dynamically and statically in C, there are some built-in functions like malloc(), calloc()…. etc.